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美国贸易谈判代表团开出价码 无异于向中国下最后通牒

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发表于 2018-5-4 04:43:37 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
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  下午,微信上广泛流传着一份美国贸易代表团的“愿望清单”,我们逐条翻译、对照,部分给予简要评述,以帮助大家理解贸易战走向。本人不保证该“愿望清单”的真实性,也对该清单出处渠道的正规性无法判断。

中美贸易关系再平衡

The Government of the United States of America (“United States”) andthe Government of the People’s Republic of China (“China”) have strongoverlapping interests as the world’s two largest economies and the majordrivers of global growth. At present, the United States-China traderelationship is significantly imbalanced. United States investment and the saleof services into China remain severely constrained. China’s industrial policiesnow targeting U.S. technologies and intellectual property pose significanteconomic and security concerns to the United States.



作为全球前两大经济体和全球经济发动机,美国政府和中国政府具有很强的共同利益。当前,中美贸易关系显著失衡。美国投资和服务销售在中国被严格限制,中国产业政策瞄准美国技术和知识产权,给美国带来经济和安全担忧。



There is an immediate need for the United States and China to reducethe U.S. trade deficit with China by ensuring that China’s market is open toUnited States traders and investors on a fair and non-discriminatory basis.China therefore undertakes to (a) eliminate improper tariff and non-tariffbarriers to United States exports to China, (b) address China’s policies andpractices related to technology transfer and intellectual property, (c) treatUnited States service providers in China on terms equal to those provided toChinese service providers in the United States, and (d) record China’sagreement not to target United States farmers and agricultural products. Toaddress these issues and restore balance in the United States–China traderelationship, there is an immediate need for the United States and China toagree on a set of concrete and verifiable actions.






中美必须立即较少美国对华贸易逆差,确保中国市场公平地、非歧视性地对美国贸易商和投资者开放。中国因此需做到:

a.取消美国对中国出口的不合理税收和非税障碍;


b.解决(纠正)中国在技术转移、知识产权方面的政策和实践;


c.中国对美国服务贸易商待遇要与美国对中国服务商待遇一视同仁;


d.载明中国不能针对美国农民和农业产品发动制裁。


为解决这些问题,实现中美贸易平衡,中美双方需要立即就一系列具体、可验证的行动达成一致。






SECTION1 TRADE DEFICIT REDUCTION

(第一部分:贸易赤字削减)




China commits to work with Chinese importers to engage in tradetransactions to achieve targets to which the Parties agree. These transactionsare specifically designed to reduce the United States-China trade deficit by$100 billion in the twelve (12) months beginning June 1, 2018, and anadditional $100 billion in the twelve (12) months beginning June 1, 2019, suchthat the U.S. trade deficit with China will have decreased compared to 2018 byat least $200 billion by the end of 2020. China’s purchase of U.S. goods willrepresent at least 75% of China’s commitment to a $100 billion increase inpurchases of U.S. exports for the twelve months beginning June 1, 2018, and atleast 50% of China’s commitment to an additional $100 billion increase inpurchases of U.S. exports in the twelve (12) months beginning June 1, 2019.



中国和国内进口商需要通过系列贸易行动,实现双方达成的目标。这些行动用以在未来12个月内(2018年6月1日算起)削减中美贸易逆差1000亿美元,并在之后的12个月(2019年6月1日算起)再削减1000亿美元逆差。这样,到2020年底,中美贸易逆差将削减2000亿美元(您没有看错,2000亿!!!)。第一期增加的美国对华1000亿美元的出口中,购买美国商品(而非服务!)的比重至少达到75%;第二期中,须至少达到50%。






简评:1)赤字削减目标翻倍,不是1000亿美元,而是2000亿美元;

           2)削减的方式,就是增加从美国的进口,而不是压缩中国自己的出口,或者缩小中美贸易规模。看来美国还是想做大中美贸易规模,而非去贸易化;

           3)增加美国进口中,货物进口比例两期需至少达到75%和50%。美国需要硬的、实在的赤字削减,而非服务贸易等“软”的赤字削减。






SECTION 2 .PROTECTION OF AMERICAN TECHNOLOGY AND INTELLECTUALPROPERTY

(第二部分:保护美国技术和知识产权)



In order to address China’s policies, laws, regulations, practices andactions that are harming United States intellectual property rights, innovationand technology development, China commits as follows:

(a) China immediately will cease providing market-distorting subsidiesand other types of government support that can contribute to the creation ormaintenance of excess capacity in the industries targeted by the Made in China2025 industrial plan;

(b) by January 1, 2019, China will eliminate specified policies andpractices with respect to technology transfer;

(c) China will take immediate, verifiable steps to ensure the cessationof Chinese government-conducted, Chinese government-sponsored, and Chinesegovernment-tolerated cyber intrusions into U.S. commercial networks and cyber-enabledtheft targeting intellectual property, trade secrets and confidential businessinformation held by U.S. companies;

(d) China will strengthen specified intellectual property rightsprotection and enforcement;

(e) by January 1, 2019, China will eliminate the provisions of theRegulations on the Administration of the Import and Export of Technologies andthe Regulations on the Implementation of the Law on Chinese-Foreign EquityJoint Ventures identified in the U.S. request for WTO consultations in China –Certain Measures Concerning the Protection of Intellectual Property Rights (DS542);and

(f) by July 1, 2018, China will withdraw its request for WTOconsultations in United States – Tariff Measures on Certain Goods from China (DS543)and will take no further action related to this matter under the WTOUnderstanding on Rules and Procedures Governing the Settlement of Disputes(“DSU”).

In addition, China will not take any retaliatory action, whether in theform of tariffs on imports of U.S. products or in any other form, includingunwarranted sanitary and phytosanitary (“SPS”) measures, unwarranted technicalbarriers to trade (“TBT”) measures, antidumpting and countervailing duties, anddiscriminatory inspection, quarantine and testing practices directed at importsof U.S. agricultural products, in response to actions taken or to be taken bythe United States, including any new U.S. restrictions on investments orimports. China immediately will cease all retaliatory actions currently beingpursued.

China agrees to immediately cease the targeting of American technologyand intellectual property through cyber operations, economic espionage,counterfeiting, and piracy. China also agrees to abide by U.S. export controllaws.



为了纠正中国“伤害”美国知识产权、创新和技术发展的法律、政策、监管、实践和行动,中国需承诺如下:

a)     立即停止扭曲市场的补贴,和其他政府支持,以免“中国制造2025”计划里所提到的行业出现“过度产能”;

b)    截至2019年1月1日前,中国需消除知识产权转移方面的政策和实践;

c)     中国需立即采取措施,停止政府主导、赞助和容忍的对美国商界的“渗透”,和对美国公司网络知识产权、商业秘密和机密商业信息的“盗窃”;

d)    中国须加强对知识产权的保护;

e)     2019年1月1日前,中国需取消“技术进出口监管条款”和中外合资的证券业监管法律规定;

f)     2018年7月1日前,中国须撤回在WTO对美国对华部分商品征税的投诉。

此外,中国不能对美国采取任何的报复措施,不管是税收措施,还是卫生免疫措施,还是技术壁垒,还是反倾销措施,还是歧视性审查,balabala。

中国须立即停止对美国知识产权的经济间谍、仿造和盗版行为,同意遵守美国高科技出口限制法律。






简评:1、美国要求中国取消一切技术追赶方面的政府努力;

  2、将高科技视为美国“禁脔”,继续限制高科技出口(中国期待通过扩大高科技进口削减逆差的想法不可能实现了);

  3、要求中国这样做、那样做,而且更搞笑的是,不能对美国采取“报复”措施。美国佬这做法也是没谁了,一句话:“强盗”、“流氓”!






SECTION3 RESTRICTIONS ON INVESTMENT IN SENSITIVE TECHNOLOGY

(第三部分,限制敏感技术投资)



In light of China’s prevailing investment restrictions andstate-directed investment in sensitive U.S. technology sectors, includingindustrial plans such as Made in China 2025, China confirms that it will notoppose, challenge, or otherwise retaliate against the United States’ impositionof restrictions on investments from China in sensitive U.S. technology sectorsor sectors critical to U.S. national security.



考虑到中国普遍的投资限制和政府导向的针对美国敏感技术行业的投资,包括“中国制造2025”等产业政策,中国需确认它不会反对、挑战、报复美国在敏感技术产业和事关美国国家安全的产业方面对中国投资的限制。



简评:在核心领域、关键产业方面,美国赤裸裸地表明要限制中国投资和追赶努力,而且还要中国不能报复。摊牌了!



SECTION 4  UNITEDSTATES INVESTMENT IN CHINA

(美国在华投资)



China recognizes that China should not distort trade through investmentrestrictions, and that any investment restrictions or conditions imposed byChina must be narrow and transparent. U.S. investors in China must be affordedfair, effective and non-discriminatory market access and treatment, includingremoval of the application of foreign investment restrictions and foreignownership/shareholding requirements. In furtherance of these principles, Chinawill issue an improved nationwide negative list for foreign investment by July1, 2018. Within ninety (90) days of the date on which China issues thisnegative list, the United States will identify existing investment restrictionsthat deny U.S. investors fair, effective and non-discriminatory market accessand treatment. Following receipt of the U.S. list of identified restrictions,China is to act expeditiously to remove all identified investment restrictionson a timetable to be decided by the United States and China.

      

       中国不能通过投资限制扭曲贸易。任何投资限制或施加的条件必须是“少”而“透明”的。美国在华投资者在市场准入方面必须被平等、有效和非歧视地对待,包括取消外商投资限制、外国股东要求限制。在这些原则指导下,中国应该在2018年7月1日前,发布一个改进版的外资投资全国性负面清单。在发布清单的90天内,美国会对审查阻碍美国投资者的限制规定。根据美国审议的限制清单,中国需立即行动,根据中美共同设定的时间表,取消所有的投资限制。

      

       简评:直接要求中国干着干那,还设定时间表,不是平等对话的样子,更像是城下之盟,触及了底线。






SECTION 5 TARIFF AND NON-TARIFF BARRIERS

(税收和非税障碍)



China’s tariffs and non-tariff barriers are significantly higher thanthose of the United States for most tradable goods. China commits to addressU.S. concerns relating to tariffs and non-tariff barriers as follows:

(a) by July 1, 2020, China will reduce its tariffs on all products innon-critical sectors to levels that are no higher than the levels of the UnitedStates’ corresponding tariffs; and

(b) China will remove specified non-tariff barriers. China alsorecognizes that the United States may impose import restrictions and tariffs onproducts in critical sectors, including sectors identified in the Made in China2025 industrial plan.



中国对大多数贸易品的税收和非税障碍明显高于美国。中国须承诺解决美国在税收和非税障碍方面的担忧:

a)  2020年7月1日前,中国降低所有非关键部门产品的税负至不高于美国的水平;

b)中国将取消特定的非税收障碍,并理解美国会在关键行业施加税收和进口限制,包括“中国制造2025”里面涉及的行业。



简评:中国必须大幅降低税率至美国水平,取消一切税收障碍;但美国却可以对高科技产业施加限制,精准打击“2025”。



SECTION 6 UNITED STATES SERVICES AND SERVICESSUPPLIERS

(美国服务和服务供应商)



In order to achieve fair treatment with respect to U.S. services andservices suppliers, China commits to improve access to its market in specifiedways.

为使美国服务和服务商获得公平对待,中国承诺采取具体措施改善市场准入。



SECTION 7 UNITED STATES AGRICULTURALPRODUCTS

(美国农产品)




In order to achieve fair treatment with respect to U.S. agriculturalproducts, China commits to improve access to its market in specified ways.




为使美国农产品获得公平对待,中国承诺采取具体措施改善市场准入。



SECTION 8 IMPLEMENTATION

(具体实施)




China and the United States will meet quarterly to review progress inmeeting agreed targets and reforms.



中美将每个季度会面一次,检查所达成的目标和改革实施进展



In the event that the United States considers that China fails tocomply with any of China’s commitments in this Framework, including deficittargets, China acknowledges the likelihood that the United States will imposeadditional tariffs or other import restrictions on Chinese products, or on thesupply of services or investment, to such extent as the United States deemsappropriate. China also understands that it will not oppose, challenge or takeany form of action against the United States’ imposition of additional tariffsor restrictions pursuant to this paragraph, including action pursuant to theDSU.



以防中国不遵守此框架下的承诺,包括赤字目标,中国需理解美国采取合适程度的额外税收或对中国商品、服务和投资供应其他方面的限制。(大棒伺候!!)



China will withdraw its WTO complaints regarding designations of Chinaas a non-market economy by the United States and European Union (United States– Measures Related to Price Comparison Methodologies (DS515), European Union –Measures Related to Price Comparison Methodologies (DS516)) and will refrainfrom challenging the treatment of China as a non-market economy under the DSUin the future.



中国应撤回向WTO提交的关于美欧对中国非市场经济认定的申诉,限制对“中国非市场经济地位”认定的挑战。(非市场经济地位,扼住了中国外贸的咽喉!)



Additionally, within 15 days of receiving written notice of aprohibited product that may have been transshipped through one or morecountries, with or without modification, China will provide full details ofevery such shipment to the suspected destination or destinations. If Chinafails to do so, or the information reveals that transshipping is occuring, theUnited States will impose tariffs equal to the amount of suspectedtransshipments.



此外,在收到一份被禁止的产品的书面通知后15天内,中国将提供每批转船至一个或多个国家货物的可疑目的地和目的地的详细信息。如果中国未能做到这一点,或者信息显示出转运正在发生,美国将征收与可疑转船量相当的关税。



China understands that if it fails to uphold any commitment under thisFramework for Discussion, it is likely that the United States will imposetariffs on imports from China, and, where appropriate in the case of China’scommitments under subsection (c) of Section 2 or the last paragraph in Section2, U.S. Customs and Border Protection will confiscate counterfeit and piratedgoods or levy tariffs to compensate the United States for its lost technologiesand intellectual property. China commits to not take any retaliatory action inresponse to the imposition of tariffs or confiscations by the United Statespursuant to this Section



中国须理解,如果它未能遵守该框架下的任何承诺,美国都可能会对来自中国的进口征税。美国海关将会没收仿制品、盗版商品和征税,以补偿其技术和知识产权损失。中国承诺,不采取任何报复行动对美国征税、没收等惩罚实施报复。
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发表于 2018-5-4 12:01:01 | 显示全部楼层
现在中美贸易战,美方必胜无疑,其原因很简单,只要通过最简单的中美博奕就能明白。在2017年,美国对中国的贸易逆差是5660亿美金,相当于一个中等发达国家的年国民生产总值。如果中美双方都停止贸易,美方可以省下5660亿美金,而中方则会亏损同样数额的外汇。再从双方的加征关税来看,目前美方对中方加征600亿美金关税,而中方对美方只加征30亿美金的关税,其结果美方可节省570亿美金,而中方则会亏损同样的金额。现在中方又加征关税到500亿美金,所以美国也相应地加征关税到1500亿美金,最后可以追加到6000多亿,但中共最多只能追加到1000多亿.所以,中共心慌了,只能被动应战,在私下跟美国求和妥协。看来,中共的初中一年级还没读满程度的红卫兵习包子只能擅长于在国内内斗的高手,但在国济经济上只能是美国精明商人总统川普的手下败将。
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发表于 2018-5-4 05:55:16 | 显示全部楼层
没有来自美国的4000亿美元顺差,中共能撑几年?
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发表于 2018-5-4 05:56:23 来自手机 | 显示全部楼层
无理取闹,如果美方证据确凿那就早该提交世贸组织成员去仲裁,而不是掏出这种洗衣粉类似的狗屁借口实施单方面制裁。如果这样那还要世贸组织干嘛?敢情国际秩序合则用不合则弃?想来硬的那中国一定会让你踢到铁板。美国代表团在华的冷遇就表明中国不想凑合着过
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发表于 2018-5-4 11:27:33 | 显示全部楼层
这是愿望啊,我也愿望银行向我贷款而且不收利息,并且永远不向我讨钱。必须等我没钱花的时候银行得立刻送钱到我手里。最好是美女送过来!不过我要是真得对银行提这样得要求得话,哈哈,下场不是变超人被游街示众就是被送神经病医院!
一个正常得国家都不会提这样得要求的。
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发表于 2018-5-4 12:03:04 | 显示全部楼层
中共很善于倒打一把,违反世贸规则的不是美国,而是中共,因为,原来世贸组织是美国倡导和发起的,美国和西方答应给中国机会加入世贸的有个前提条件,就是中国要完全市场经济化,并在各个领域全方位地改革开放,此外,还希望中共能政治上民主化。但结果美国和西方对中国感到太失望,因为多年以来,中共完全没有信守承诺。非但没有全盘市场化,相反大力加强国有企业,加强国家和政府对市场的干预,加强计划经济的领导地位。此外,中共还不许外国投资于中国的许多领域,如金融,保险,网络管理,煤炭,石油,钢铁,高铁等,然而中国却可以在美国和西方投资于各个领域,这是极端不公平的。此外,中共还大量偷窃美国和西方的智慧产权和高科技秘密,并且还强迫许多外资企业要由中方拥有51%以上的股份,并强迫外商将高科技秘密转让给中共。如果中国是个民主国家和美国的盟友,那美国还能容忍。然而,最可怕的是,中共将对美国的巨额逆差和加入世贸所占大量便宜所获得的巨额利润,用于大力投资于国防,建造大量的攻击型武器,企图称霸世界,挑战美国和西方的价值观,文明世界和原有的国际秩序。中共太嚣张和咄咄逼人了,所以美国和西方开始有所警觉,对中共违反世贸规则的恶劣行径进行反击,那是天经地义和理所当然的。
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发表于 2018-5-4 15:27:25 | 显示全部楼层
China has answered Uncle Sam, go and fxxxk yourself
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发表于 2018-5-4 21:01:59 来自手机 | 显示全部楼层
中共流氓体制要面对文明世界的抵制了。过去给过你机会,既然习特勒与人类文明为敌,那就咎由自取了。可怜13亿国人被绑架。
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